It is a common phenomenon that the fame enjoyed by a person is seldom in proportion to his real greatness. Strange as it may seem, the personages who reach the highest pitch of Grandeur, sanctity and fame are associated with legends rather than historical facts. In view of this experience, Ibn Khaldun, a philosophical historian, laid down a general principle that the more an incident becomes popular the more a network of unfounded tales and stories is woven around it. The German poet Goethe has stated the same truth in a different way. He says that when human greatness reaches its peak, it becomes a legend.
The important place Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) occupies in Islamic History is too well known and requires no elucidation. Subsequent to the period of the Holy Last Messenger’s true successors, the incident that had a powerful impact on the religious and political history of Islam is the tragic event of Hazrat Imam Husain’s Shahadat (martyrdom). It may not be an exaggeration to say that no tragic incident that has occurred in this world caused humanity to shed tears so profusely as this particular event. More than thirteen hundred years have passed since this soul-stirring event in Islamic history and still the month of Muharram brings to the mind of every Muslim a vivid remembrance of the noble sacrifice offered by Hazrat Imam Husain ibn Ali bin Abu Talib (radiyallahu ‘anh).
In spite of this, how curious it is that a powerful and tragic event of great import has assumed the shape of a fable than a historical fact. If a fact-finder wishes to study this event in the light of reliable evidences of history, in most of the cases he will be disappointed. The existing popular material on the subject is meant only for narration in religious assemblies exciting the feelings of sorrow and grief for the martyrs.
A few details of the event leading to the martyrdom of Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) are given in this book. It should be borne in mind that this description does not seek to make a historical criticism, but it aims at presenting bare facts relating to Hazrat Imam Husain’s martyrdom in a chronological order.
Causes of Differences Between Imam Husain and Yazid
The Ahlul-Bayt (members of the family of the Holy Nabi, sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) had a valid claim to Khulafat for themselves. Soon after the death of Mu’awiyah bin Abu Sufyan, his son Yazid declared himself the Khalif since he had been nominated a successor to Mu’awiyah during his lifetime. Yazid demanded allegiance from Hazrat Husain ibn 'Ali (Radiyallahu ‘anh). As the nomination to Caliphate was contrary to the spirit of the Islamic constitution, Hazrat Husain ibn 'Ali (Radiyallahu ‘anh) was averse to it and he, therefore, refused to take the oath of allegiance in favor of Yazid.
Khalif Hazrat 'Ali (Radiyallahu ‘anh) declared Kufa as the Capital of Caliphate. Consequently a large number of supporters of Ahli-Bayt were gathered there. They invited Hazrat Husain (Radiyallahu ‘anh) to Kufa and assured their support to him. Hazrat Imam Husain (Radiyallahu ‘anh) deputed his cousin Hazrat Muslim bin 'Aqil (Radiyallahu ‘anh) for obtaining bay’ah (allegiance) from the residents of Kufa and himself started preparation for undertaking a journey to Kufa.
Suggestions of Friends
All the well wishers, friends and relatives who knew the intention of Hazrat Imam Husain (Radiyallahu ‘anh) were extremely perturbed and dissuaded him from doing so, reminding him of the proverbial infidelity and fickle-mindedness of the Kufans. They also knew the betraying mentality of Banu Umayya in the past. So they requested Hazrat Husain (Radiyallahu ‘anh) to postpone his proposed journey to Kufa. Hazrat ‘Abdullah ibn 'Abbas (Radiyallahu ‘anh) said: “The people are extremely worried over your proposed journey to 'Iraq. The factual position may please be made known to the public.” Hazrat Husain (Radiyallahu ‘anh) replied, “I have taken a firm decision in this regard and I shall leave for Kufa within a day or so.” Hazrat Ibn ‘Abbas (Radiyallahu ‘anh) instantly remarked: “May Allah protect you! Are you going amidst such people who have made their Amir helpless, crushed their opponents, and have taken over the control of the country? If so, you may gladly go to Kufa and if otherwise, their invitation to you is an open declaration of war. I am afraid that they may betray you.” Imam Husain (Radiyallahu ‘anh) did not take notice of this humble submission of Hadrat Ibn ‘Abbas (Radiyallahu ‘anh) and stuck to his decision.
Enthusiasm of Hazrat Abdullah ibn Abbas (Radiyallahu ‘anh)
At the time of departure of Imam Husain (Radiyallahu ‘anh), Ibn ‘Abbas (Radiyallahu ‘anh) again approached him and requested him humbly to give up the decision of his proposed tour. He spoke very impatiently: “My dear cousin, I can't remain a silent spectator of your doom, the Kufans are munafiqeen (hypocrites) and cheaters; never trust them; better stay here in Hijaz; no body excels you, if Iraqis are sincere in calling you over there, ask them first to expel your opponents from the country. In case you have decided to leave Hijaz; you may better go to Yemen where there are many forts and impassable mountains, a vast territory having a big population loyal to the memory of your father. There you will be beyond the reach of your enemies. With Yemen as your base you can spread your message around by letters and messengers. I am sure such a course will bring you success.” Hazrat Imam Husain (Radiyallahu ‘anh) replied, “O my cousin! I am really grateful for your kind sentiments and good wishes for me, but I have already made up my mind to go to Kufa.” Hazrat Ibn ‘Abbas (Radiyallahu ‘anh) further requested: “if you are not going to accede to my request, better leave the women and children here, I apprehend that you may not be slain before their eyes just as Hazrat Uthman (Radiyallahu ‘anh) was assassinated in the presence of the members of his family.” Hazrat Ibn ‘Abbas (Radiyallahu ‘anh) remained silent for a moment and then said: “Had it been possible that a gathering of the people over here could prevent you from your intention, I would have arranged it just now.” However Hazrrat Imam Husain (Radiyallahu ‘anh) adhered to his Scheduled program.
A letter from Abdullah bin Ja’far (radiyallahu ‘anh)
Likewise a number of people appealed Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) to change his decision. One of his cousins ‘Abdullah ibn Ja’far (radiyallahu ‘anh) wrote to him a letter from Madinah, which reads:
“I beseech you in the name of Allah to desist from the implementation of your plan for it entails your death and destruction for your family and companions. Your death will extinguish the light of earth; at the present you are the beacon-light of faith and the center of the hopes of the Mu’mineen. Don't make haste in undertaking the journey.”
A letter from Umar bin Sa’id bin al-Aas, The Governor of Madinah
Hazrat Abdullah ibn Ja’far (radiyallahu ‘anh) even approached ‘Umar bin Sa'id bin al-Aas, the Governor of Madinah and requested him to apprise Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) of the factual position through a letter. ‘Umar directed him to draft a letter on which he will affix a seal. Thus ‘Abdullah (radiyallahu ‘anh) wrote a letter on behalf of the Governor which reads:
“I pray to Allah to keep you away from the path where there is a danger to your life and may guide you to the way of salvation. I have come to know that you are leaving for Iraq; I beseech you not to undertake such a mission for I am afraid that a disastrous calamity is awaiting you there, I am sending Abdullah ibn Ja’far bin Sa’id (radiyallahu ‘anh) to you; please return with him; there is peace and tranquillity for you over here; may Allah protect you for He is the Best Protector and Sustainer.”
Still Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) stuck to his decision.
Meeting with Fardhuq
Hazrat Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) left Makka for Iraq along with the members of his family, including all men, women and children. While on his way he met a well-known poet Fardhuq at a place called Saffah. When interrogated by Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) about the people of Kufa, the poet answered: “Their hearts are with you, but their swords are with the Umayyads.” “You are right,” remarked the Imam but he said: “The matter now rests with Allah, His Will will be done, His Commandments are issued every moment, If His Will is favorable to us we will praise Him. If His Will is contrary to our expectations, we will earn the reward of our patience and resignation.”
Persistent Requests of the Relatives of Muslim bin ‘Aqil
On reaching a place named Dharud, it was learnt that the emissary of Hazrat Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) Muslim bin ‘Aqil (radiyallahu ‘anh) was executed publicly by Ubaidullah bin Ziyad, the governor of Kufa, and nobody had taken the least notice of it. On hearing this sad news Imam recited, “Innaa lillahi wa innaa ilayhi raa-ji’oon.” (from Allah we came and to Allah we shall return).
Meanwhile some of his companions again pleaded, “We beg you in the name of Allah, to abandon this journey and return without moving further, for we cannot rely upon Kufans; they are not faithful to you.” Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) made a pause for a moment and began to ponder over the situation, whether he should continue the journey or abandon it. At the same time all the relatives of Hazrat Muslim bin 'Aqil (radiyallahu ‘anh) rose and said, “We shall never return, ‘In the Name of Allah’ we shall avenge the murder of our brother or die in the attempt.” Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) cast a glance over his companions and with a cold sigh he spoke, “There is no charm in life after him.”
The Host Dispurses
At the outset of the journey a large number of Bedouins had joined the convoy; they expected a grand reception for Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) at Kufa and provision for immense facilities for the entourage by Kufans having all knowledge about it, the Imam addressed to them, “O people! I have received very disappointing and dreadful news from Kufa; Muslim bin ‘Aqil, Hani bin ‘Urwa, and Abdullah bin Baqter have been assassinated; those who were to be trusted proved unfaithful; Kufans have dismayed us; I would suggest now to disassociate yourselves from us and leave us alone at the Mercy of Allah; there shall not be the least resentment on our part.” Such an announcement made by Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh), resulted in decrease in the strength of the entourage and there were left digitally counted members, majority of them were the family members.
Arrival of Hur bin Yazid
Imam Husain's party had advanced only a little distance beyond Qadsia, when Hur bin Yazid appeared with a force of 1,000 armed men and followed him and his men intending to keep a close watch on them till they came face to face with Ubaidullah bin Ziyad, governor of Iraq, and his men.
Imam Husain's Address
At a stop where the, members of the entourage performed Salat-ul-Zuhr, Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) addressed them before the Salaah; he spoke:
“O people! Before you, and before Allah I have a reason for my arrival to this place, that I did not come over here at my own accord, but I have been invited by you people; and your letters with me stand a testimony to this effect. If you have gone back on the promises contained in your communications addressed to me and conveyed through messengers, I am willingly prepared to go back. You invited me time and again to lead you as an Imam. So I have arrived here. I would ask you for allegiance if you are true in your previous promises; in that case I shall be satisfied and shall go with you to the city.”
Hur and His Companions Offered Salaat Under the Imam’s Leadership
When the address was over; there prevailed a complete silence; none spoke about the address then people asked the Mu'adhdhin to call for the Iqama, meanwhile Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) asked Hur, whether he will arrange his Salaat separately. Hur replied that he himself and his men would make Salaat behind him, and they did so. The Asr Salaat were also performed at the same place by the friends and foes together. After the Salaat, Imam delivered the second Khutbah (sermon).
Imam Husain's second khutbah
After Salaat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) delivered the second khutbah; he spoke:
“You will please Allah if you adhere to righteousness and support the claim of the right person. We the members of the Holy Nabi’s family have a stronger claim to Caliphate than others. They rule over you tyranni-cally. If you dislike us and do not concede our right; if you have gone back on the promises contained in your communications addressed to me and conveyed through messengers, I am willingly prepared to go back.”
Letters from the citizens of Kufa
Hur asked Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) about the letters which Imam had mentioned in his discourse expressing his ignorance about such letters. The Imam (radiyallahu ‘anh) asked ‘Aqba bin Sam’an to bring the two bags which were full of letters sent by the people of Kufa. Hur told Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh): “We are not those people who wrote these letters to you.” He further explained, “I have been ordered by Ubaidullah bin Ziyad to take you before him.” Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) told him that his appearance before Ubaidullah bin Ziyad was not possible before his death.
He then ordered for departure to Makkah, but he was stopped by the opponents to do so. Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) asked Hur in anger, “Thy mother may curse you.” Hur replied, “Had these words been spoken by some one else, I would have replied him in the same manner, but alas! I can’t name your mother.” “What do you want of me,” asked Hazrat Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh). “I wish to take you before Ubaidullah bin Ziyad,” replied Hur. “But by Allah, I won’t go with you,” replied Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh). “At all cost I have to follow you, until you reach Kufa, and I have no orders to fight against you,” argued Hur. “If you are not willing to go to Kufa better you choose some other way which may neither lead to Kufa nor Madinah, meanwhile I am writing a letter to Ibn Ziyad to find out a suitable way to avoid any conflict. It would be better if you too write a letter to Yazid or ‘Ubaidullah in this regard.” Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) agreed to the suggestion extended by Hur.
At this stage Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) delivered another sermon; he spoke:
“O people! The Holy Nabi (Sallallahu ‘alayhi wa Sallam) says that whoever comes across a ruler that perpetrates cruelty and transgresses the Divine limits, breaks the covenant made with Allah, violates the Nabi’s traditions and rules over the people with coercion, if he does not oppose that ruler with word and deed, Allah will not grant him a good abode in the life Hereafter. Look! They have become Shaitan’s followers and are opposing Allah’s Commandments. Corruption has appeared. They are violating the limits imposed by Allah Ta’ala. They are in illegal possession of booty. The lawful is made unlawful and unlawful is rendered lawful. I am the right person to prevent them from going astray and lead them to truth and justice. Your numerous letters were received and messengers approached me with the message of allegiance. You have pledged your word that you would not betray me, nor would you hand me over to my enemies. If you abide by your pledge, you will be on the right path. However, it is not beyond our expectation if you break the promise. You have meted out a similar treatment to my cousin. Whoever trusts you, is actually under the spell of illusion. Beware! You have already harmed yourself and even now you continue to harm yourself. You have lost your share and marred your fortune. Whoever breaks the promise, he will break it to the detriment of his own self. It may be that Allah will soon rescue me from your hands. As-Salaamu Alaikum wa rahmatullah wa Barakatuhu.”
Speech of Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) at Another Place
At another place, he observed:
“You witness the existing state of affairs. The world has changed its colors. It is completely devoid of virtue. Only the sediment is left. Alas! Don’t you see that truth has been relegated to background. Falsehood is deliberately being acted upon. There is none who could prevent the wrong-doing. It is high time a believer should try to defend the truth for the sake of Allah. I wish to die a martyr’s death. It is an offense in itself to live with oppressors.”
Reply from Zaheer
Listening to this address, one named Zaheer bin al-Yaqin al-Jali from amongst the audience stood up as spoke as under:
“Ya Grandson of the Holy Nabi! May Allah be with you. We have listened to your discourse. By Allah! If the world were eternal and we were to live therein forever, even then we are prepared to give up our life for extending assistance to you. We should like to die with you rather than to lead an eternal life.”
Retort to Hur’s Threat
In the course of the journey, Hur had been repeatedly threatening Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) that if he waged war, he would surely be killed. Once roused to indignation, Sayyidina Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) replied: “Do you frighten me with death? Has cruelty gone to that extreme that you people intend to kill me? I am at a loss to understand in what terms I shall replay to you. I want to repeat the same words uttered by one of the Companions of the Nabi (Sallallahu ‘alayhi wa Sallam) while proceeding on Jihad in reply to a threat by his brother:
‘I am proceeding. Death does not mean humiliation for a brave person when his intention is genuine and he performs Jihad in the Cause of al-Islam.’”
Four Kufans’ Arrival
At a place known as ‘Azib-ul-Hijanat, four horsemen were seen coming from Kufa by Tarmah bin ‘Adi who was reciting the following verses:
“O my she-camel don’t be afraid of my scolding move forward with courage, before the dawn. Carry the pious travelers and go forth for the best voyage until the pious person may meet you. He is honorable, free, and warm-hearted; Allah has brought him for the performance of best deed. May Allah save him forever.”
On listening to these verses, Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) spoke: “By Allah! I believe Allah will favor us; may I be killed or be a conqueror.” Hur bin Yazid told Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh), “these people are from Kufa and they are not your companions, I shall stop them or I shall ask them to go back.” Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) reminded him of his promise, “You have already committed yourself to me that you will not fight against me till a reply is received from Ibn Ziyad. Moreover though these people have not come with me yet they are my companions. If you showed any sort of atrocity towards them I shall fight against you.” This made Hur calm and quiet.
Conditions at Kufa
Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) ascertained from persons arrived from Kufa about the situation in the city. They replied at the time of their departure the citizens were being persuaded through bribe. At heart they were for Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) but they would draw their swords against him.
Assassination of the Envoy
They further said, “The messenger, earlier sent by you named Qais bin Masher, had been killed by Ubaidullah bin Ziyad.” This news shocked Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) and with tearful eyes he expresed:
“Some of them already died and others are awaiting the death. But stand firmly on the right path and do not change their minds.”
The Imam prayed: “O Allah open the doors of Paradis for them and let us enter the place of Thy blessings and reward and gather together there.”
Tarmah bin ‘Adi’s Offe
At this juncture, one of Imam Husain’s well-wishers, Tarmah bin Adi, said:
“By Allah! I am making a keen observation, but I see noby who may stand by your side. Death seems to be inevitable for you, if the people who are following rush upon you. I never saw such a big crown anywhere as I witnessed behind Kufa. They all have assembled to fight against one individual—Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh). I advise you not to move an inch further. If you want to go to a place where you would be quite safe from enemies, you may follow me. I shall take you to my mountain Aaja. Within a period of less than ten days, you will find 20,000 armed strong men belonging to a tribe Tai arrayed before you. As long as they are vigilant, no body will have the courage to look at you with an evil intent.”
Hazrat Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) invoked Allah’s blessing on him for his offer and said that he had a commitment with the men following him and in view of this, he could not go a step forward. He said, “Nobody could predict how the enmity between us and our enemies will end.”
Now Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) was sure that he was heading towards death. At the time of leaving the place called Qassar ban Maqtal, Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) had a nap. Suddenly he awakened and said loudly: “Innaa lillahi wa innaa ilayhi raa-ji’oon. Alhamdulillahi Rabbil-‘Alameen.” He repeated these verses thrice; his son ‘Ali asked him as to why he recited these verses. The Imam replied, “O son! I had just taken a short nap, meanwhile I saw a horse rider who was moving ahead and expressing words: “People move onward and the death too moves with them.” I am sure this is the prediction of our death which is being conveyed to us.” Ali spoke: “Are we not the righteous; may Allah save you from the doomsday.” Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) replied, “No doubt, we are the righteous one, that is why we should not fear death.” He was the son of Sayyidina Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) who faced martyrdom at the battlefield of Karbala and later on became known as Ali Akbar.
Ibn Ziyad’s Letter
Next day, Imam Husain rode on horseback and posted his men at strategic points for defense. Hur took exception to it. A tussle continued between the two for a long time. Eventually, an armed rider was seen coming from Kufa. He presented communication addressed to Hur by Ibn Ziyad, governor of Kufa, which reads as follows:
“Do not allow Husain to stay at any place. He should not be permitted to get down anywhere except in an open space. See that he does not take refuge either in a fort or a fertile piece of land. My messenger will remain with you to see how far you comply with my order.”
Hur informed Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) about the contents of the governor’s letter and told him that he was helpless, as such, he could only allow him to encamp in an open place in a desert.
Zaheer suggested that a fight with the force that existed at that time was far easier than the massive army that was expected to arrive later.
Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) disagreed, because he did not like to initiate war.
Zaheer then said: “Let us encamp in this village which is situated by the side of river Euphrates.” Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) enquired its name. Zaheer repled: “Its name is ‘Aqr which means fruitless. On hearing this Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) remarked: “May Allah save us from ‘Aqr.”
Arrival at Karbala
Eventually, on the 2nd of Muharram, 61 AH, Sayyidina Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) with his entourage camped at a forlorn place known as Karbala which was situated at a long distance from river Euphrates with a hill in between the two.
Umar bin Sa’d’s Arrival
Next day, Umar bin Sa’d bin Abi Waqqas arrived with an army of 4,000 Kufans. Ubaidullah bin Ziyad deputed him on this expedition by force. Umar never wanted that the situation should take a serious turn. He tried that the matter should amicably be settled. No sooner did he arrive at Karbala, than he sent a messenger to Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) inquiring the reason of his arrival. In reply Imam Husain stated that the Kufans had invited him. He further added that in case they disliked his arrival, he was prepared to go back.
Ibn Ziyad’s Stern Attitude
Umar bin Sa’d was delighted at this reply and became optimistic. He addressed a letter to Ubaidullah bin Ziyad explaining the position. In reply, he issued the following instructions:
“Ask Husain first to take bay’ah to Yazid along with his companions and then we shall see what is to be done… See that water is not supplied to Husain and his companions. They should not have even a drop of water just as Uthmân bin Affan was deprived of it.”
Friction on Water
Being constrained by Ubaidullah’s order Umar bin Sa’d posted 500 sepoys to guard the bank of the river. Water supply was stopped to Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) and his party (radiyallahu ‘anhum). As such, Imam Husain ordered his brother ‘Abbas bin Ali (radiyallahu ‘anh) to fetch water from the river under escort of thirty horsemen and twenty sepoys. Arriving at the bank, they were resisted by the guard commander Umar bin al-Hajjaj. A regular struggle ensued. Eventually, Hazrat Abbas (radiyallahu ‘anh) succeeded in getting twenty leather bags filled with water.
Imam Husain Meets Umar bin Sa’d
In the evening, Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) sent a messenger to Umar bin Sa’d to talk in the night. They both set off from their respective tents each followed by twenty horsemen and met midway. They had a talk in camera till late in the night. Although the talk was quite confidential the lobby circle revealed that Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) suggested to Umar that they should leave their arms at Karbala and both would go to Yazid. Umar replied that if he acted according to this suggestion, his house would be destroyed. To this, Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) replied that he would have it reconstructed. Umar said that his entire property would be confiscated. Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) guaranteed that he would compensate from his own property situated in Hijaz. But Umar never agreed to it.
Husain’s Three Conditions
Subsequently they had three more interviews with each other. Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) offered three alternatives:
1. Let him go back to the place he had came from;
2. Let him have his case decided by Yazid himself;
3. He may be allowed to go to a border place.
Umar’s Letter to Ibn Ziyad
After protracted negotiations, Umar bin Sa’d wrote to Ibn Ziyad again in the following terms:
“Allah has extinguished the fire of mischief. He has resolved the differences and created unity. He had set right the community’s case. Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) held out a promise to accepty any of the three alternatives. Therein lies your as well as the community’s welfare.”
This letter created a favorable reaction on Ibn Ziyad. He appreciated Umar’s efforts and said that the proposal was acceptable. Opposing the proposal, the wretch Shimr bin Zil Joushan said:
“Husain is now in our grip. If he escapes without taking the bay’ah, he might gain respect and power and comparatively you may be rendered weak and helpless. It is advisable that he is kept under watch until he surrenders himself. I am told that Husain and Umar bin Sa’d hold secret talks during the whole night.”
Ibn Ziyad’s Reply
This advice was approved and Shimr was deputed within a letter containing the following text:
“If Husain surrenders himself with all his companions, there should be no war and he should be sent to me alive. If he does not agree, there is no other alternative except war.”
“Shimr has been instructed that as long as Umar complies with my orders, the former should obey him, otherwise, he should remove Umar and take over the command of the army. Husain should be murdered and his head be sent over to me.”
In this letter, Umar was severely admonished with a warning that he was not deputed to defend Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) and communicate recommendations in his favor. Further, the letter contained the following specific instructions:
“My orders are clear. If he surrenders himself, he should be sent to me alive. In case he refuses, he should be attacked unhesitatingly. Shed his blood and disfigure his body, as he deserves it. After killing get his body trampled by horses, be cause he is a rebel and has deserted the community. I have resolved that if he is murdered, all this should be done. If you obey my orders you will be eligible for a reward and if you contravene then you will be dismissed.”
Shimr Zil Joushan and Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh)
It should be remembered that the paternal aunt of Shimr, Umm Banin bint Kharam, was the wife of Hazrat Ali (Karramallahu ta’ala wajhah) and whose off-springs were ‘Abbas, Abdullah, Ja’far, and Uthman and all the four brothers were accompanying Imam Husain in this encounter. Thus Shimr was the paternal cousin of all the four brothers and also of Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh). He requested Ibn Ziyad for the protection of his above relatives which was granted to them. He therefore called all the four brothers and said: “You are my relatives from the paternal side. I have secured safety and protection for you.” But they replied: “Curse be upon you! You give us protection but there is no such safety for the grandson of the Holy Nabi (Sallallahu ‘alayhi wa Sallam).”
Shimr handed over the letter of governor of Kufa to Umar bin Sa’d and he reluctantly agreed to comply with the orders.
Army’s Preliminary Movement
After Salat-ul-Asr, Umar bin Sa’d ordered his army to move. From the opposite side, Hazrat Abbas (radiyallahu ‘anh) appeared with twenty horsemen. Umar apprised him of the reply he received from Ubaidullah bin Ziyad. Hazrat Abbas (radiyallahu ‘anh) returned to convey the same to Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh). In the meantime, there was an exchange of dialogues between the representatives of the rival parties which was secured by the narrators.
Exchange of Words Between Men of Rival Forces
From Imam Husain’s side, Habib bin Mazahar came forward and said: “The worst people in the sight of Allah Ta’ala are those who present themselves before Him, while their hands are stained with the blood of the descendants of the Holy Nabi (Sallallahu ‘alayhi wa Sallam) and the pious persons of Kufa.”
Urwa bin Qais from the opposite side replied: “Boast as much as you can. Carry on propaganda about your own piety and purification.”
To this, Zaheer said: “Allah Himself has purified these persons and led them to the right path. Fear Allah and do not be an accomplice to the wrong-doers by killing innocent persons.”
Urwa replied: “O Zaheer! You were not the supporter of this family. Were you not a supporter of Hazrat Uthmân (radiyallahu ‘anh) earlier than today?”
Zaheer replied: “No doubt, it is true. I neither wrote any letter to Imam Husain nor sent any messenger to him but this journey had gathered us together. I saw him; that reminded me of the Holy Nabi (Sallallahu ‘alayhi wa Sallam) and also his love and affection for Husain. When I found that he was confronting with a mighty enemy, Allah put love in my heart for him. It is all due to my love for the Holy Nabi (Sallallahu ‘alayhi wa Sallam) that I have resolved to help him and to safeguard the very right of Allah and His Holy Last Messenger (Sallallahu ‘alayhi wa Sallam) which you have neglected.”
When Imam Husain came to know about the contents of Ibn Ziyad’s letter, he said that confrontation might be avoided on that day, so that they might be able to pray to Allah Ta’ala and ask for His Forgiveness. He added, “Allah knows how much I am fond of Allah’s ‘Ibadah and reciting Ayat from His Book.” This message being conveyed, the hostile army retreated.
Imam Husain’s Grief and Faithfulness of His Companions
After the retreat of forces, Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) addressed the assembly of his supporters:
“Alhamdulillah. I am grateful to Him in an hour of distress as well as in comfort. I am thankful to Allah Who bestowed Nubuwwah on our family; gave understanding of the Holy Qur’ân; favored us with the knowledge of Deen; and blessed us with the faculties of seeing, hearing, and of taking a lesson. Thereafter, O People, I am not aware if there are persons who are better than my colleagues or more sympathetic and comforter than my Ahli-Bayt. O people! May Allah reward thee. I believe that tomorrow will be the final day of decision between me and those of the enemies. After a deep consideration, I have come to the conclusion that you should disperse quietly. After taking my life, the enemy would not bother about others. Hence I advise you to disperse along with my family members.”
On hearing this all of the Ahli-Bayt were extremely aggrieved. Hazrat Abbas (radiyallahu ‘anh) said: “Why is it so? Do you want that we should survive after your death? Allah may not keep us alive to see that day.
The relatives of Hazrat Muslim bin Aqil (radiyallahu ‘anh) were advised to go back, as Hazrat Muslim’s murder was too big a sacrifice.
They unanimously replied, “If we disperse, people will accuse of that we deserted our Sheikh, leader, and cousin. They will criticize that we never threw an arrow, never used the spear, nor wielded the sword. Never! We shall never do it. We would sacrifice our property, life, and progeny. We shall fight along with you. We shall meet the same fat as yours. Allah may not keep us alive after you quite the world.”
Imam Husain’s other companions also stood up and emphatically assured him of the cooperation at the risk of their life. Muslim bin ‘Ausja Asdi stood up and said: “Should we leave you alone? By Allah, we should never leave you alone. I shall pierce my spear in the chests of enemies. I shall wield the sword and in case I was de-sworded I shall throw stones on the enemies so long as death embraces me.”
Sa’d bin Abdullah al-Hanafi said: “By Allah, I shall not leave you alone unless they kill me, burn me in fire and reduce me to ashes and blew it in the air. I am ready to meet the same fate seventy times till I diminish in your support.”
Zaheer said: “By Allah, I am ready to be cut by a saw a thousand times than to leave you alone. I shall be fortunate if I shall be able to save you and members of your family at the cost of my life.
Morbid Anxiety of Hazrat Zainab
Hazrat Imam Ali bin Husain Zain-ul-‘Abidin (radiyallahu ‘anh) reported that the very night of the following morning when my father was assassinated I was ailing and my aunt Hazrat Zainab1 (radiyallahu ‘anha) was looking after me; suddenly my father called his colleagues inside his tent. At that time the slave of Hazrat Abu Dharr Gheffari (radiyallahu ‘anh) named Hawi was smearing the sword and my father was reciting the following verses:
“O world! How deceitful friend thou are. How many people are killed day and night by your hand. But the time does not spare any one and never accepts compensation and everything is in the control of Allah. Every living creature is aheading towards death.”
Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) repeated these verses four times. My heart was filled with grief. Tears were about to tumble down from my eyes by I stopped them.
From the march of events Imam Husain’s ailing son, Ali Zain-ul-‘Abidin came to the conclusion that the calamity was inevitable. When Imam Husain’s sister, Sayyidah Zainab (radiyallahu ‘anha) came to know about it, she started shrieking and crying. Imam Husain tried to pacify her with exhortation, “What is all this sister? I am afraid our faith and endurance are overpowered by our passions and devilish forces.” Sayyidah Zainab replied how could she control herself when Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) was killing himself with his own hands. Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) answered that such was Allah’s Will. This reply added much to Sayyidah Zainab’s distress and she went out of control due to excessive grief. Witnessing this, Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) made a lengthy speech on Sabr (patience and perseverance). He observed:
“Sister! Fear from Allah. Take solace from Allah’s Mercy. Death is destined for each and every living being. Even those living in heaven cannot lead an eternal life. When every thing is mortal in this world, why so much distress and grief with the thought of death. For every Muslim, the life of the Holy Nabi (Sallallahu ‘alayhi wa Sallam) provides the perfect model. What does this model teach us? It teaches us to have forbearance and perseverance. It also teaches us to rely on Allah and to reconcile ourselves to the Will of Allah Ta’ala. We should not deviate from that teaching.”
A Night of Prayers
Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) and his companions passed the whole night in offering prayer, invoking forgiveness from Allah Ta’ala, weeping and crying. A division of the enemy’s cavalry had been patrolling round Imam Husain’s camp. Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) was reciting the following Ayats of the Holy Qur’an loudly:
“And let not those who disbelieve imagine that the rein We give them bodeth good unto their souls. We only give then rein that they may grow in sinfulness. And theirs will be a shameful torment. It is not (the purpose) of Allah to leave you in your present state till He shall separate the wicked from the good.” (Surah Aal-e-Imran, Ayats 178-179)
10th Muharram, War Begins
On the 10th of Muharram, Friday, Umar bin Sa’d set out with his army. Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) too posted his men at strategic points. His army consisted of only 72 men; 32 horsemen and 40 foot-soldiers. The right wing of the army was given in the charge of Zaheer while Habib bin Mazahar was appointed Commander of the left wing of the army. The flag was held by Imam Husain’s brother, Hazrat ‘Abbas bin Ali (radiyallahu ‘anh). A trench was dug behind the camp which was filled with fire so that the enemy could not attack from the rear.
Shimr who went past the camp on a galloping horse noticed fire and cried aloud, “Husain! Did you accpet fire before the Day of Resurrection?” Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) retorted, “O son of a Shepherd! You deserve fire more than any one else.”
One of Imam Husain’s men, Muslim bin Ausja, sought permission to shoot an arrow at him, as he was standing at a point blank range. Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) did not allow him to do so as he did not want to initiate war.
Imam Husain Raised His Hands in Du’a
As the enemy’s forces advanced, Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) raised his hands praying to Allah:
“O Allah, I trust upon You in my hour of distress and calamity. Thou are my protector in every misfortune. I have lost my heart due to my miseries. Allah my prudence has failed. Friends have turned foes. Enemy is rejoicing. I have sought only Thy help. Thou are the Master of every fortune. Thou are kind. Today I beseech Thy help.”
Imam Husain’s Discourse to Enemy
When the army approached closer, Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) mounted a camel, kept the Holy Qur’an in front and addressed the enemy forces in the following words:
“O people! Listen to me. Do not be rash. Let me admonish you. Let me say a few words in my justification and let me explain the reason of my arrival here. If my excuse is reasonable and if you can accept it, do justice in my case. You would be lucky if you desist from taking arms against me. Even after hearing me, if you refuse to accept my excuse, I will be ready for you. Rush upon me all at once. Do not allow a moment’s respite. Whatever be the eventual outcome, I repose confidence in Allah Who supports righteous men.”
When this speech was heard by the female members of the Ahli-Bayt there began hue and cry inside the tents. Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) asked his brother Hazrat Abbas (radiyallahu ‘anh) and his son Ali to go and console them for they had yet to weep a lot. Thereafter, he remarked: “May Allah bless a long life to Abdullah ibn Abbas.” The narrator states: “It was due to the fact that Abdullah ibn Abbas (radiyallahu ‘anh) suggested Hazrat Imam Husain at Madinah leaving the women at home but the Imam did not pay any heed to it. Now when he heard their hue and cry, it reminded him of the submission of Hazrat Abdullah ibn Abbas (radiyallahu ‘anh).” He resumed his speech:
“O people! Remember my lineage. Pause to think for a while who am I. Take stock in your conscience! Is it fair for you to kill me and discard the respect due to me? Am I not the son of your Nabi’s daughter, and the son of his cousin? Was the leader of Shuhadaa, Hamza (radiyallahu ‘anh) not my father’s uncle? Is Ja’far al-Tayyar (radiyallahu ‘anh) not my uncle? Don’t you remember the famous tradition of the Nabi (Sallallahu ‘alayhi wa Sallam), ‘Sayyids (Chiefs) of the youths of Paradise,’ concerning me and my brother? If my statement is true, it is certainly true, as since the time I am conscious of myself, I have not uttered a lie. Tell me is it right for you to receive me with unsheathed swords? If you don’t believe in my word, there are persons among you who can testify to the correctness of my statement. Ask Jabir bin Abdullah al-Ansari and Abu Sa’id al-Khudri (radiyallahu ‘anhuma). Inquire from Sahl bin Sa’d Sa’di and Zaid bin Arqam (radiyallahu ‘anhuma). They can tell you wheter they heard the Holy Nabi (Sallallahu ‘alayhi wa Sallam) saying this about me and my brother or not. Should not this fact prevent you from shedding my blood? By Allah, there is no grandson of the Holy Nabi (Sallallahu ‘alayhi wa Sallam) on the surface of the globe at this time except myself. I am the direct descendant and grandson of your Nabi (Sallallahu ‘alayhi wa Sallam). Do you want to kill me, because I have taken the life of any one? Did I shed anyone’s blood? Have I usurped the wealth of anyone? Tell me what is the matter? What is my fault?”
Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) repeatedly asked this question, but nobody answered. At last, he called out, by name, the prominent persons of Kufa and inquired whether they had not written to him: “Fruits are ripe, the soil has become green and the canals are overflowing. If you come, you will come to the great army of your own; come soon.”
Thereupon those persons opened their mouth and said that they had never written to that effect. Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) expressed surprise at it and cried out, “what a blatant lie.” Then Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) again called out loudly, “O people! As you dislike me, it is better that I am released, I shall go back.”
Humiliation is Unacceptable
At this juncture, one of the Kufans named Qais bin Ash’ath said: “Is it not advisable that you should surrender yourself to your cousins? They will mete out the treatment to you worthy of your position. You will receive no harm from them.”
To this, Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) answered, “All of you are tarred with the same brush. O man! Do you want that Bani Hashim should demand ransom for one more life, in addition to that of Muslim bin Aqil? No, I shall not surrender myself to them with humiliation.”
Zaheer’s Address to Kufans
Zaheer advanced towards the enemy on his horse and shouted: “O Kufans, fear from the wrath of Allah. It is a duty of every Muslim to advise his brother Muslim. Look! We are all Muslims till this time. We believe in the same Deen and the same Shari’ah. So long as the swords are unsheathed, you deserve our advice and well-wishes. But when the swords are drawn the mutual respect will vanish and shall become two rival groups. Look! Allah has test our faithfulness towards the descendants of the Holy Nabi (Sallallahu ‘alayhi wa Sallam). We call you to the love for Ahli-Bayt and to the rivalry of Ubaidullah bin Ziyad. Believe you would gain nothing from these rulers. They would make you blind; they would cut your hands; they would disfigure your faces; they would hang you and would kill the pious men one by one; they have already done this. The incidents of Hajar bin ‘Adi and Hani bin ‘Urwa have not become so old that you have forgotten them.”
On hearing this, Kufans began to abuse Zaheer and offered praise for Ibn Ziyad. “By Allah, we shall not go back unless and until we kill Husain and his companions or produce them before Amir,” was their reply.
Zaheer replied: “Well! If the son of Sayyidah Fatimat-uz-Zahra (radiyallahu ta’ala ‘anha) is not comparable with the son of Sumiyya (Ibn Ziyad) you should pay this much regard to the progeny of the Holy Nabi (Sallallahu ‘alayhi wa Sallam) that you would not kill him. Let him talk with his cousin Yazid bin Mu’awiyah and settle the issue. I swear by Allah that it is not necessary to shed the blood of Husain to please Yazid.”
Hur Joins Imam Husain’s Army
It is narrated by Adi bin Harmla that when Ibn Sa’d ordered his army to advance, Hur asked him whether he really wanted to fight against Imam Husain. Ibn Sa’d replied, “Yes, a battle would be fought in which heads will be cut and hands will be amputated from shoulders.” Listening to this, Hur left his own place and proceeded slowly towards Imam Husain’s camp. One of his tribe’s men, Muhajir bin Aws, inquired whether he wanted to attack Imam Husain. Hur kept quiet. Suspecting him due to his reticence, Muhajir said, “I never found you in such a state during any war. If I am asked to name the bravest man in Kufa, I can point out none except you. But what are you doing now?”
Hur grew serious and replied, “By Allah, I am making a choice between Hell and Paradise. By Allah, I have selected Paradise, no matter if I am cut to pieces.” With those words, he whipped his horse and joined Imam Husain’s army. He presented himself before Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) and said: “O Grandson of the Holy Nabi! I am the same unfortunate person who prevented you from going back. I pursued you along the way and compelled you to encamp at this place. I never suspected that these people will not concede your terms and will go to such an extreme in your matter. By Allah, had I known that they will act in this way, I would have never done what I did earlier. I am ashamed of the misdeed I have committed and come to you for repentance. I want to sacrifice myself and I think that would serve the purpose of atonement.” Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) very kindly invoked divine blessings for him and said, “May Allah accept your repentance and forgive you. As your mother has named you Hur, you are a free man and insha-Allah you will remain free both in this world and in the Hereafter.”
Hur’s Address to the Enemy
Hur then addressed the enemies and said that they should have accepted any of the conditions offered by Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh), so that Allah might save them from an ordeal. They said that his question would be answered by their Commander Umar bin Sa’d. Umar said that he himself wished to accept this offer, but his proposal was rejected. Thereafter, Hur made a passionate speech and put the Kufans to shame for not abiding by their promise. In reply, they started shooting arrows. Hur was forced to return to the camp.
When Imam Husain’s sincere efforts to bring round the enemy failed, encounter became inevitable. Umar bin Sa’d strung his bow and shot an arrow towards the camp of Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) saying: “Be witness! I have shot the first arrow.”
Yasar and Salam, the slaves of Ziyad bin Umayya and Ubaidullah bin Ziyad came forward and challenged for a single combat, as was the ancient custom of warfare in Arab. From the Husaini forces, Habib bin Mazahar and Barbar bin Hasir volunteered themselves to meet this challenge by Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) did not permit them to fight. Then Abdullah bin Amir al-Kalbi stood up and sought permission to go out. This man came from Kufa along with his wife to support Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh). He was a dark-complexioned tall statured man with broad shoulders and strong limbs and was looking like a warrior in all respects. Having a look at him, the Imam was pleased to observe that he was a true warrior and gladly permitted him to meet the challenge. In a few brief exchanges, Abdullah put his both rivals to death. His wife Umm Wahab stood close by with a staff in her hand inciting her husband to fight. Then suddenly she became so passionate that she started advancing towards the battlefield. Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) was deeply impressed by her enthusiasm and said: “May Allah reward you for support to Ahli-Bayt, but fighting is not meant for ladies.”
After that, right wing army of Ibn Sa’d launched an attack and as they drew nearer, front line of the Husaini forces knelt down and straightened their spears towards the horses. Horses were frightened. The enemy mounted troopers could not advance and were repulsed with heavy losses.
Later on, ensued a full-fledged battle. In the beginning the chivalrous men from either side came out in response to the challenge and fight with each other. Every challenger of the rival army who came forward was killed by the partisans of Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh). On seeing this discouraging start Umar bin al-Hajjaj who was in command of the enemy’s right wing, shouted:
“O fools! First realize to whom you are fighting with. These people are not afraid of death! In this way you will be killed one by one. They are but a handful of souls. You can kill them even with stones.”
Umar bin Sa’d approved of the suggestion, and disallowing individual duels ordered for a general attack. Both the sides came to grips and then ensued a hand to hand fight.
After some time when the fighting was stopped it was found that a Husaini brave hero Muslim bin Awsja was writhing in blood and sand. Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) ran towards him. He was still breathing. Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) lamented with a deep respiration saying, “Muslim! May Allah shower his choicest blessings on you:
“Some of them have already died and others are awaiting death. But stand firmly on the right path and do not change their minds.”
Muslim bin Awsja was the first martyr from the side of Husaini forces in this battle.
Horses Rendered Useless
After the right wing, the left wing also joined in attack with Shimr as its Commander. This attack too was very severe but the Husaini right wing resisted it manfully. There were only thirty-two horsemen in this wing but wherever they struck they caused a great loss to the enemy. Soon the powerful enemy realized that with the present strength of forces at its disposal it could not achieve the desired goal. They, therefore, sent for reinforcement and soon five hundred archers came to their succor. They, on their arrival, started shooting arrows at the horsemen crippling their horses and forcing them to dismount.
Ayyub bin Musharrah reported that he had himself injured the horst of Hur bin Yazid, piercing it with his arrows. Hur bin Yazid jumped to the ground. He was holding a sword in his hand and he was looking like a lion. His sword was moving rampantly and he was reciting the following verses:
“It does not matter if you have made my horse useless. I am of noble blood and am braver than a fierce lion.”
The fighting was in its full swing. It was now midday but neither side seemed to have gained the upper hand. The reason was that the Husaini army had pitched the tents at one place and the enemy could only attack from one side. When Umar bin Sa’d realized that he could not succeed in this way he deputed some of his men to uproot the tents. Only four or five men from the Husaini army pushed them back. Failing in this attempt Umar bin Sa’d ordered his men to set the tents on fire. His soldiers rushed towards tents carrying fire in their hands. Husaini forces were perturbed due to this grave situation but Hazrat Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) said: “No matter, let them burn the tents. It will be better for us because they cannot attack from the rear.”
Assassination of Hazrat Umm Wahab
At this stage Zaheer bin al-Yaqin launched a severe attack on Shimr’s forces and put them to rout but this state did not obtain for long. In a short time the enemy gathered its strength. Now the helplessness of Husaini forces was evident. Several warriors and renowned leaders were killed one by one. Abdullah bin Amir al-Kalbi was one of them. His brave wife Umm Wahab was sitting in the battlefield and was wiping dust from the face of her martyred husband saying repeatedly: “Greetings to you for attaining an abode in the Paradise.” Shimr saw her and killed her (radiyallahu ‘anha).
Abu Thumama Amr bin Abdullah Samdi realized his helplessness and said to Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh): “Enemy is approaching fast. By Allah, I shall defend you even at the cost of my life. Enemy will not harm you as long as I am alive. However, it is my earnest desire to offer my Prayers before meeting my Rabb.” On hearing this Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) raised his head and said: “Ask the enemy to give us respite for offering Prayers.” But the enemy did not accede to their requests and the battle continued.
Martyrdom of Habib and Hur
It was a very tough time. The enemy had put in the battle its full force. Unfortunately, Habib bin Mazahar, Commander of the right wing of the Husaini forces, was also killed. It was a dead blow to the Husainis. The next came the turn of Hur bin Yazid who advanced straight into the enemy forces reciting the following verses with great enthusiasm:
“I have sworn no to be killed unless and until I have killed them. I shall die only while I am advancing. I shall inflict heavy casualties with my sword. I shall neither fear no shall I run away.”
He boldly attacked the enemy and eventually, sore and weary with fatal wounds, gave up his life.
Martyrdom of Zaheer
Now the Zuhr time was over. Hazrat Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) offered Salat-ul-Khawf along with his companions. After the Salat the pressure of the enemy increased all of the more. On this occasion Zaheer bin al-Yaqin, Commander of the left wing, took command of the army and attacked the enemy reciting the following verses:
“I am Zaheer, son of al-Yaqin. I shall keep them away from Husain with the point of my sword.”
After dispersing the lines of rival forces he returned and putting his hand on Imam Husain’s shoulder recited the following verses:
“Advance, Allah has guided you to the right path. You will be meeting today with your grandfather, the Holy Nabi (Sallallahu ‘alayhi wa Sallam), and Hasan, and Ali al-Murtaza, the young grave Ja’far al-Tayyar, and the living martyr Asadullah Hamza (radiyallahu ‘anhum).”
Then he turned towards the enemy and put a number of them to death until he himself was killed.
Bravery of the Ghiffari Brothers
Companions of Hazrat Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) now realized that it was quite impossible for them to stop the enemy. Therefore, they all decided to sacrifice themselves one by one. Accordingly, to Ghiffari brothers moved forward and began to fight with the enemy. While fighting they were reciting the following verses:
“Bani Ghaffar and tribes of Nazar have known fully well that we will cut the vicious people into pieces with our glittering swords. O people! Support the pious ones with they spears and they swords.”
Sacrifice of the Jabri Brothers
Thereafter two Jabri brothers came forward who were weeping bitterly. Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) said to them: “O sons of my brother! Why are you weeping? By Allah, I believe you will be killed after a few minutes.” They replied that they were not shedding tears due to the danger to their lives, but it made them weep seeing that the enemy had surrounded them and they could do nothing to save him. Then both of them began to fight courageously chanting aloud: “As-Salaamu ‘alayka O’ Son of the Holy Nabi!” Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) replied: “Wa ‘alaykum-us-Salaam wa Rahmatullah.” At last they were also killed.
Martyrdom of Hanzala bin As’ad
After than Hanzal bin As’ad stood before the enemy shouting: “O people! I fear for you the same disaster as befell upon the nations of Aad and Thamud. I fear you may be destroyed. O’ People! Don’t slay Husain lest Allah should send calamity on you.” He fought manfully until he was martyred.
Ali Akbar’s Martyrdom
By now all the companions were killed one after the other. It was now the turn of the Bani Hashim and the family of the Holy Nabi (Sallallahu ‘alayhi wa Sallam). First of all, Ali Akbar came into the battlefield and attacked the enemy, reciting the following verses:
“I am Ali bin Husain bin Ali. By the Rabb of Ka’bah, we are more deserving being nearest to the Holy Nabi.”
“By Allah the son of the man whose father is unknown cannot rule over us.”
He fought heroically but was killed by the sword of Marra bin Manqaz al-‘Abadi. The narrator said that he saw a woman hurrying out of the tent. She was beautiful like the full moon and was crying: “Ah! My brother! Ah! My nephew.” When he enquired as to who she was, he was told that she was Hazrat Sayyidah Zainab bint Fatimah al-Zahra (radiyallahu ‘anhuma). Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) caught hold of her hand and took her to her tent. Then he lifted the dead body of Ali Akbar (radiyallahu ‘anh) and placed it before the tent.
A Graceful Youth
Thereafter, other scions of the Hashimite blood and members of the Ahli-Bayt came to the forefront, and fighting courageously sacrificed their lives one by one. Meanwhile a graceful young man appeared on the scene. He was wearing a simple dress and putting sandals on his feet. He was a very beautiful person and his face was shining like a moon. He came out like a roaring lion and attacked upon the enemy with his immense force. Amr bin Sa’d Azdi struck on his head with a sword. The young man cried: “O’ Uncle!” and fell upon the ground. On hearing his cries Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) came to his rescue and attacked upon the killer with a sword like a hungry falcon and ferocious lion. The assailant raised his hand in his defense but could not succeed. His hand was cut off from the elbow. Being wounded the killer called for help. The army came to his help but rode over him in a state of utter confusion. The narrator said that when the dust was slightly subsided he saw Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) standing near the youngman who was in the agony of death. Imam Husain was saying: “Disaster seize them who killed you. What answer will they give to your grandfather on the Day of Resurrection? By Allah, it is heart-rending for your uncle that you cried for help but he could not save you from the clutches of the enemy. Alas! Enemies of your uncle have increased in number than his friends.” Then he took the dead body in his lap and pressed it close to his chest. He brought the dead body to the tent with its feet trailing on the ground and laid it beside the body of Hazrat Ali Akbar (radiyallahu ‘anh). The narrator enquired of the people as to who he was and was told that he was Sayyid al-Qasim bin Hasan bin Ali bin Abu Talib (radiyallahu ‘anh).
Martyrdom of Newly-Born Babe
While Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) was standing there, he was apprised of the birth of a son. The babe was put in his arms and as he was calling the Adhan in his ears, an arrow was shot from the opposite direction that pierced the throat of the infant. The infant died instantaneously. He pulled out the arrow from the throat of the infant. The blood gushed out of the wond and by taking a handful of it, Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) smeared the body of the infant. He then said: “By Allah, you are more dearer in the sight of Allah than the she-camel of Nabi Salih (alaihis-Salaam). And Nabi Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘alayhi wa Sallam) has more prestige in the sight of Allah than Nabi Salih (alaihis-Salaam). O’ Allah! Thou has withheld they succor to us. Do what Thou may deem fit for us.”
Likewise most of the prominent personalities of Bani Hashim and Ahli-Bayt were martyred. Historians have recorded the names of the following Shuhadaa:
1. Muhammad bin Abi Sa’id bin ‘Aqil
2. Abdullah bin Muslim bin ‘Aqil
3. Abdullah bin ‘Aqil
4. Abdur-Rahman bin ‘Aqil
5. Ja’far bin ‘Aqil
6. Muhammad bin ‘Abdullah bin Ja’far
7. Awn bin ‘Abdullah bin Ja’far
8. ‘Abbas bin Ali
9. Abdullah bin Ali
10. Uthman bin Ali
11. Muhammad bin Ali
12. Abu Bakr bin Ali
13. Abu Bakr bin al-Hasan
14. Abdullah bin al-Hasan
15. Al-Qasim bin al-Hasan
16. Ali Akbar bin al-Husain
17. Abdullah bin al-Husain
Boldness of a Child
Now it was the Imam’s turn to sacrifice himself for the cause of Allah. He was standing alone in the battlefield but no one dared attack him. Enemy tried a number of times to kill Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh), but nobody was willing to take the responsibility of killing him, and wanted to bear the burden of this sin. At last, Shimr started provoking his army men to attack. They encircled Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) from every side. Now there were only woman and a few teenagers in the camp of the Ahli-Bayt. A teen aged boy saw Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) in danger and became impatient. He picked up a wooden stick in his hands and ran out to help the Imam. Hazrat Sayyidah Zainab (radiyallahu ‘anha) saw him and caught hold of him. Hazrat Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) also said to his sister: “Stop him. Don’t let him come out.” The boy, however, forced himself loose from her grip and ran to the side of the Imam. The same moment Bahrain bin Ka’b drew his sword to strike the Imam. The boy remonstrated: “O’ wicked! Will you kill my uncle?” The stone-hearted assailant brought down his sword on the boy who took the blow on his arm. His hand was severed. The boy cried with pain. Hazrat Husain clasped him to his bosom and consoled him saying: “Be patient, my child! Let this suffering be the means of reward from Allah. Allah Ta’ala will join you with your elders: Nabi Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘alayhi wa Sallam), Ali bin Abu Talib, Hamza, Ja’far, and Hasan bin Ali (radiyallahu ‘anhum).
Valor of Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh)
Eventually, Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) remained alone to face the grim situation single-handed. The enemy now passed close to the Imam who began to wield his sword right and left and forced the enemy to retreat. Abdullah bin Amar who was himself taking part in the fight reported that he attacked Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) with his spear and might have killed him, but he desisted, thinking not to carry the sin on his head. He said: “Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) was being attacked from all sides but he made the enemy to retreat. He was wearing a shirt and a turban. By Allah, I have not seen such a disheartened man whose family members were killed before his eyes, so valiant, bold, resolute, and steadfast. The position was that the attackers were running right and left like sheep before a lion.” This position continued for a long time. Meanwhile Hazrat Sayyidah Zainab (radiyallahu ‘anha), the sister of Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) came out of her tent and cried: “O’ Umar, would Abu Abdullah be killed before your eyes.” Umar turned his face but tears began to roll down from his eyes upon his cheeks and beard.
Arrow Pierced the Throat of Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh)
While fighting Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) felt very thirsty, and went towards Euphrates to quench his thirst but the enemy did not allow him to drink water. Suddenly his throat was pierced by an arrow. He pulled out the arrow and threw the blood which oozed out of his throat towards the sky saying: “O’ Allah! I complain only to Thee. See how the people are treating the grandson of Thy Messenger (Sallallahu ‘alayhi wa Sallam).”
Shimr was Reprimanded
Then Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) turned towards his camp but he was resisted by Shimr and his companions. Then Imam Husain realized that their intent was to plunder the tents. Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) said: “If you have deserted